This program converts your computer into a remote calculating device in which different mathematical operations are carried out that are sent time to time to a server.
BOINC takes advantage of the resources you don’t utilize when you’re working on your computer. Imagine that you leave it on all night to download something from a P2P program—be unselfish and share that time with science.
From the program’s web page you can select the project you wish to join. It’s possible to participate in more than one at the same time. There are many different types: biology, chemistry, medicine, astrophysics, physics, environmental science, mathematics, etc.
Furthermore, if you form part of a research group that needs to process an important amount of computation, you can create your own scientific project and benefit from the worldwide network of volunteers.